Holy Shrine of Imam Reza The shrine complex of Imam Riza (AS) was developed on the site of the eighth Imam's tomb, in what was at the time of his death in 817 the small village of Sanabad. In the tenth century the town acquired the name Mashhad, 'Place of Martyrdom' (used for any burial place of a Muslim martyr), and became the most sacred site in Persia. Although the earliest dated structure bears an inscription from the early fifteenth century, historical references indicate buildings on the site prior to the Seljuk period, and a dome by the early thirteenth century. Following periods of alternating destruction and reconstruction, including the sporadic interest of Seljuk and Il-Khan Sultans, the largest period of construction took place under the Timurids and Safavids. The site received substantial royal patronage from the son of Timur, Shah Rukh, and his wife Gawhar Shad and the Safavid Shahs Tahmasp, Abbas and Nader Shah. Under the rule of the Islamic Revolution, the shrine has been expanded with new courts (Sahn-e Khomeini, Sahn-e Jumhuriyet Islamiye), a library and an Islamic university. This expansion in effect reverses the 'beautification' project of Pahlavi Shahs Riza and Muhammed Riza, in which all structures adjacent to the shrine complex were cleared to form a large green lawn and circular boulevard, isolating the shrine from its urban context. The tomb chamber is located underneath a golden dome, with elements dating back to the twelfth century. The chamberis decorated with a tile work dado dating from 612/1215, above which the wall surfaces and a muqarnas dome were executed in mirror work in the nineteenth century. Shah Tahmasp gold-plated the tomb dome, which was previously decorated with tile. The gold of the dome was lost to Ozbeg raiders and subsequently replaced by Shah Abbas I during his renovation project begun in 1601. Various other chambers surround the tomb, including the Dar al-Siyada and Dar al-Huffaz, both commissioned by Gawhar Shad. These two chambers provide transition between the tomb chamber and her congregational mosque, situated on the southwest side of the complex. People considers the domed chamber of Allahvardi Khan as probably 'the most perfect component of the shrine'. Lying to the east of the tomb, this octagonal chamber is articulated in two stories with bays, arches and galleries, affecting a modeled interior in deep relief. All surfaces are covered in the finest of Safavid tile mosaic, including the muqarnas-filled dome. The assemblage of courts and buildings encircling the inner chambers includes the Mosque of Gawhar Shad, the Madrasa Do Dar, the Sahn-e Engelab or Sahn-e Atiq (the old courtyard), and the Sahn-e Azade or Sahn-e Jadid (the new courtyard). Shrine of Hazrat-e Masumeh The most important of the many religious sites in Qom is the Shrine of Hazrat-e Masumeh (AS), a mausoleum dedicated to Fatimah Masumeh, sister of Imam Reza (AS). She was travelling to meet her brother in Mashhad when she became ill and passed away in Qom. The shrine which was erected in her memory soon became a popular site of pilgrimage and remains so to this day. The current buildings mainly date from the Safavid Period (1501-1732). Shah Abbas I (r. 1587-1629) wished to discourage his subjects from making pilgrimages to sites outside of his kingdom such as Najaf and Karbala, which were then in the hands of his enemies the Ottoman Turks. He thus began a large scale reconstruction of the Hazrat-e Masumeh and emphasized its importance as a place of worship. Shah Abbas and his three successors who continued the reconstructions are buried at the shrine. King Fat’ali Shah (r. 1797-1834) had the shrine lavishly restored, covering the main dome in gold and adding many fine embellishments including highly detailed tile work. Goharshad Mosque This mosque was constructed by Goharshad (the wife of Shahrokh Teimoori), in 821 AH. This mosque has a large courtyard in the center with four porticos. Beautiful inscriptions in Thulth script (the work of Shahrokh’s son) adorn the walls. The most important section of this mosque is its southern portico which boasts of arches and valuable inscriptions. Along side this portico stand solid minarets with thickness of 6 m., with the same height of the portico itself, which help in supporting the ceiling and prevent the roof from collapsing. In bombardments of the Russian forces in 1330 AH, the main dome of this mosque which was 15m. in dia. sustained a loss. This dome was demolished in the year 1339 AH. The current dome has been constructed (in keeping with the former circumference) with concrete. This mosque has gone under repair once during the Safavid reign and the other in the Qajar era. Chak Chakoo Fire Temple It is a place located amongst the mountains of Ardakan and Anjireh (on the way to Tabas) which is at a distance of 46 kilometers from Yazd. Chak Chakoo has its name for the water dripping from the stone-cut mountains. This vicinity has suitable accommodation for pilgrim. Danial e-Nabi Mausoleum The same is located on the eastern banks of the Shaoor River. This mausoleum is the resting abode of one of the prophets of the Israelites. The premises has two courtyards, which are surrounded with chambers and porches. The mausoleum is located at the end of the second courtyard, which has rooms in three side of courtyard for a nights stay of pilgrims. In this mausoleum, the sepulchre below the tomb is an old yellow colored stone devoid of any inscriptions. The ceiling of the mausoleum has beautiful mirror works with light apertures on eight sides under the dome. The foundations of the mausoleum are old but thick and strong. The upper section of eastern side of mausoleum is adorned with tile works. The dome of Danial-e-Nabi is a multi-sided, hexagonal in shape erected on a circular base.