Soltaniyeh Dome This structure has 8 elevated porticos and about 50 chambers, including an area which is also similar to a chamber. The dome of this construction weighs 200 tons and is situated on pillars, bearing an area of 50 sq.m. each if separated or cut across. This structure is made of a mixture of gypsum and to a lesser proportion limestone. Gonbad Soltanieh is erected in three floors which are defined as follows. The ground floor consists of the eight portions. The first floor comprises of the halls which run throughout this floor. On the third floor is the foundation column of the dome and the octagonal pillars supporting the minarets. The entrance to the cellar is from the southern portico. The layout or plan of this cellar is a complex one, consisting of 7 segregated sections, each part independent of the other. The principle factors regarding the artistic effects revealed in Gonbad Soltanieh are the inlayed brick-work, plaster moldings, engravings and tile works. All these together create harmony that is worth appreciation and artistic value. For example, the spectacular engraving here that stands 360 cm. high in which a verse from the Holy Qoran (Sureh Fath) has been inscribed in the beautiful script of 'tholth'. On the upper or second floor of this structure engravings can also be observed, one of these inscribed with the (Ayeh 125 Sureh Mobarakeh Baqareh) from the Holy Qoran inscribed in the "Kufic' script. "Kandowan" Village Also some archaeologists believe that it dates back to pre-Islamic era. These houses resemble caves, being "dug out" in the mountains and therefore are reputed worldwide. Mineral water in this area is also used for treatment of disease. Mineral water, unique houses, green valleys, pleasure weather, dairy products and mountainous honey are factors which absorb many tourists every year. Persepolis Persepolis (Persian: Takht-e Jamshīd) is perhaps the best-known archaeological monument of Persia (Iran). Here in the twinkling of an eye we can leave the modern world behind and find ourselves in about 500 BC at the capital of the greatest empire the world had known to that time: the Persian Empire. ‘Persepolis’ is the Greek name given to the capital of the Achaemenid dynasty. It means the City of the Persians. Ancient Persians, however, would refer to it as the city of Pārse.Today Persepolis is located a few minutes driving from the city of Marvdasht in Fārs province, 56 km northeast of Shīraz.The geographical site of the Persepolis is also interesting. It is built on the foothills of Rahmat Mountains near the Sīvand River. This place has been regarded as a sacred site from prehistoric times. The construction of the Persepolis began between 518 and 516 BC upon the order of Darius The Great who transferred the capital of the empire from Pasargadae to this newly established place. The construction continued Darius; successor Xerxes I and Artaxerxes I in the 5th century BC. At its height the Persian Empire stretched from Greece and Libya in the west to the Indus River in present-day Pakistan in the east. The many nations under the empire’s rule enjoyed considerable autonomy in return for supplying the empire’s wealth. Each year at New Year Festival of Noruz still celebrated in Iran on the first day of spring representatives from these nations brought tribute to the king. The Persian kings used Persepolis primarily as a residence and for ceremonies such as the celebration of Noruz The site of Persepolis consists of the remains of several monumental buildings on a vast artificial stone terrace about 450 by 300 m (1,480 by 1,000 ft). A double staircase, wide and shallow enough for horses to climb, led from the plains below to the top of the terrace. At the head of the staircase, visitors passed through the Gate of All Nations, a gatehouse guarded by enormous carved stone bulls. St. Thaddeus Monastery Some 20 km south of Maku in Western Azarbaijan province lies the famous and marvelous monastic complex of St. Thaddeus. It is located on a mountain ridge beside a stream sunken into the rock, thus giving it a natural fortified position. The outline of it, placed on gently rolling hills, stands out sharply against the vastness of the horizon. Sourb Thade (St. Thaddeus) or Ghara-Kilisa (the black church) as it is called by the people of Northwestern Iran, forms a harmonious, integral part with its surroundings both in the material with which it is constructed, and in its form. The location of the monastery was surely chosen for strategic reasons, for it was built during a period when neighboring peoples seriously threatened it. The thick walls around the monastery, also, had an important defensive function during sieges, and the complex was built especially to withstand them. It is situated within a natural circle of mountains, a short distance from a river. Wells drilled within the enclosure guaranteed a water supply. The church was surrounded by vast, fertile fields, quite suitable for farming, and therefore capable of supplying food for both men and animals. The harvest was well protected in special storage rooms, thus enabling the monastery to keep its independence and relative security. Historical City of Masouleh On the foothills of Talesh Mountains in the Caspian coastal belt of northern Iran lies the historical city of Māsūleh. It is situated approximately 60 km southwest of the city of Rasht and 32 km west of Fūman in Gīlān province. The historical city of Māsūleh was established around 1006 AD, 6 km to the northwest of its current place. People moved from Old Māsūleh to the current site because of pestilence and neighbor attacks. Masūleh River is the river passing through Māsūleh with a water fall 200m away from the city. So many other springs are found around Māsūleh. The city is also surrounded by forest from valley to mount. Fog is the predominate weather feature. The most exquisite feature of Māsūleh is its architecture: The buildings have been built into the mountain and are interconnected. Courtyards and roofs both serve as pedestrian areas similar to streets. Māsūleh does not allow any motor vehicles to enter, due to its unique layout. It is the only village in Iran with such a prohibition. However, the small streets and many stairs simply also wouldn't make it possible for vehicles to enter. Yellow clay coats the exterior of most buildings in Māsūleh. Masūleh women adorn the windows with flowerpots and this gives a unique beauty to the village. The main bazaar of Māsūleh would also be attractive to tourists: there you can see handicrafts being made by traditional artisans—Māsūleh handicrafts can be a proof of your visit to this beautiful village in evergreen land of Gīlān. The Observance of Muharram The mourning of muharram is an important period of mourning in Shi’a Islam, taking place in which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the remembrance take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia. The event marks the anniversary of the battle of Karbala when Imam Husayn ibn Ali, a grandson of Prophet Muhammad, and the third Shi’a Imam, was mrtyred by the forces of the second Ummayad caliph Yazid I. The event is marked by arranging ‘majālis’ (gatherings) to review Islamic teachings and to commemorate Husayn’s sacrifice. The mourning reaches its climax on the tenth day, known as Āshūrā, on which the forces of Yazid killed imam Hussayn, his 72 companions and members of his family. Women and children left living were enslaved and transported to Yazid’s court in Damascus Pasargadae Pasargadae is the capital city and the burial place of Cyrus the Great, the king who founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire, centered on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. He is also remembered in the Cyrus legend—first recorded by Xenophon, Greek soldier and author, in his Cyropaedia—as a tolerant and ideal monarch. It is a testimony to the capability of the founder of the Cyrus the Great was not only a great conqueror and Achaemenid empire that it continued to expand after his death administrator; he held a place in the minds of the Persian and lasted for more than two centuries. But Cyrus was not only a people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome. great conqueror and administrator; he held a place in the minds of the Persian people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome. His saga follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world. The sentiments of esteem or even awe in which Persians held him were transmitted to the Greeks, and it was no accident that Xenophon chose Cyrus to be the model of a ruler for the lessons he wished to impart to his fellow Greeks. The figure of Cyrus has survived throughout history as more than a great man who founded an empire. He became the epitome of the great qualities expected of a ruler in antiquity, and he assumed heroic features as a conqueror who was tolerant and magnanimous as well as brave and daring. His personality as seen by the Greeks influenced them and Alexander the Great, and, as the tradition was transmitted by the Romans, may be considered to influence the Western culture even now. Zanjan Congregational Mosque The Jame' Mosque and school of Zanjan is situated in the old part of the city. The said construction was erected by Abdollah Mirza Dara, or the eleventh offspring of Fathali Shah Qajar in the year (1242 AH.). This historical site is of great value where planning and architectural feats are concerned. To the east and west of the court yard of the mosque sixteen chambers exist running parallel to each other. Facing towards south are rise chambers used as residential quarters for theology students. The ceilings of these chambers being artistically decorated with diagonal arches 2.5 m. from the floor. The portions have beautifully vaulted and have arched ceilings. The chambers have also been worked in tile dating back to Qajar era. This mosque has three places for nocturnal payers, or Shabestan each having an altar. The dome of this mosque is spectacular. Ferdowsi tomb, Tūs The tomb of the great poet Abolqassem Ferdowsi, can be accounted for a place of ‘worship’ so to be called by the lovers of Farsi Literature. This renowned historical site has brought fame for the city of Toos. The construction of this tomb began in the year 1928 and work came to an end in 1934. In the year 1964 a few changes were made in the structure. The internal walls of the tomb are adorned with sculptures depicting scenes from the ‘Shahnameh’. Each side wall of the building is approximately 30 m. x 30 m. and each of the four sides have stairways lead up to it. The lenght of each side of the main buildings foundation is about 16 m., worked with marble it is adorned by verses from the Shahnameh in the Nasta'liq script. Above the southern stone, a symbol of the Ahuramazda embossment, a replica from Achaemenian buildings is in sight. At the vicinity of the tomb of this great Iranian poet, is the resting place of a contemporary poet Mehdi Akhvan Saless Menar jonban (Isfahan) The historic mausoleum called Menar-e Junban (The Shaking Minaret) from the Mongol period and 6 km to the west of Esfahan, consists of the tombstone of Amu Abdollah Karladani (bearing the date 1316 AD) and two shaking minarets each soaring high on either side of the mausoleum ivan, as the main attraction of the place. If you climb up the very narrow stairway to the top of one of these minarets and lean hard against the wall it will start to sway back and forth, and so will its twin, and the whole ivan decorated with polygonal azure tiles. Although by no means unique in this respect, the Shaking Minarets of Esfahan are probably the most famous of their kind. Naghsh-e jahan Known also as Naghsh-e Jahan, the square is a masterpiece of urban construction situated at the heart of the legendary city of Isfahan. Built in the 17th century CE by Shah Abbas of the Safavid dynasty at the time of flourishing of Isfahan, the compound consists of bazaars, mosques and government headquarters. Its name, Naqsh-e Jahan means “image of the world” in Persian. The compound has been described as a Persian equivalent to Saint Mark’s in Venice. Two beautiful mosques of Masjed-e Imam and Masjed-e Sheikh Lotfullah situated at the sides of the square would charm your eyes with their intricate but simple design and decoration. The Aliqapu compound situated on the other side of the square is a six-storey Safavid structure with exquisite design and decoration. The Naqsh-e Jahan square was registered in UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979, together with Chogha Zanbil and Persepolis. Kalporgan Village Iranian pottery is as old as this country’s history. Its earliest manifestation, found at ancient sites in Baluchestan, date back to the Paleolithic. A remarkable production of pottery items flourished at Shahr-e Sukhteh around 3200 BC. Alas, after developing in multifarious manners in various centers across Iran, this art now appears on the verge of extinction despite its unique character. Among these, however, the history of kalpurkan is a different one all together. The pottery items produced at Kalpurkan bear a great similarity to the specimens unearthed during 3rd millennium archeological excavations carried out in Sistan, Baluchestan,Kerman,Gillan,and parts of Japan and India. The village of Kalpurkan is a dependency of the township of Saravan and located 25 kilometers east of this township, in Baluchestan province .Perhaps the most striking particularity of the pottery of Kalpurkan concerns its manufacturing technique, which perpetuates ancient methods and models. This type of pottery produced using the coil technique. Its products are unglazed and adorned with dark brown patterns . The potters of Kalpurkan have ever been women, who thus contribute to the economy of the family. They don’t use wheel .They shape their products with their hands and adorn them with particular geometric patterns that are several thousand years old. An aqueous mixture of Tytok (type of ferrous oxide)and a stone found on Mt.Birak, near the village, is used in this decoration, which is applied using a match-sized stick of Daz (wild date)wood. The decoration appears used consist entirely of abstract symbols and mental images transmitted form generation to generation, which sometimes religious beliefs or features of her environment. The majority of these symbols are similar to those found on pottery items belonging to the prehistory and the early historic period. The raw material used in the manufacture of Kalpurkan pottery consists of particular type of clay .The man of the village bring it in from a region known as Mashkotak, two kilometers northeast of Kalpurkan, and blend it with a slip- like mixture to prepare the mud, which they hand over to their nimble-fingered women. The pottery items produced in Kalpurkan consist essentially of bowls, jugs, cups, pitchers, vessels, etc. Most of these vessels feature a lid which can also be used as an independent vessel. Examples in case are cup-shaped lids also used to cover large bowls. Another interesting feature of the pottery of Kalpurkan is their handles. Unlike the present-day pottery, these handles are even more resistant than the vessels themselves. Each handle is formed out of a thick coil of mud, which the artisan pastes to the moist body of the vessel and gives it the desired shape by means of appropriate tools. These handles are much better executed than those of the glazed pottery produced in the mid-centuries of the Islamic period. Another interesting characteristic of Kalpourkan is its diversity, which manifests itself in the form of vessels shaped as symbolic animal heads, pomegranate –shaped incense burners (used to burn wild rue seeds and locally known Socaky), vessels shaped as camels, dogs…It is noteworthy that the thickness of these varies between 1.0 and 5.5 centimeters. Their color is gray before firing and reddish brown once are backed. Golpayegan Castle This township is located in the northwest of the province, whereas in the west lies the province of Lurestan. To the south are the townships of Khansar, Faridan and Najaf Abad. In the eastern direction it lies within the limits of Najaf Abad and Esfahan. Golpayegan can be said to be yet another ancient city of the country, and was known as Golbadegan, Jorbadegan or Golabadegan. The Jame' Mosque of this city is one of the vital and historical structures here, related to the 6th century AH, a remnant of Mohammad Ebne Malek Shah Saljuqi. The same displays various epigraphs. Naein Congregational Mosque As a famous historic monument of Iran and also known as the Alavian Mosque, the Jam’e Mosque of Na’in is a construction of the 10th century AD. Architecturally, the crescent-like arches of the mosque bear close resemblance to those of the Tarikhaneh Mosque in Damghan and the Jam’e Mosque of Nairiz in Fars province. The monument possesses eleven arcades with semi-circular vaults, the one in the middle being wider than the rest. Upon the walls, the vaults, and the pillars, there are various octagonal and other geometric decorations worked in plaster moldings, which are particularly worthy of note for their simple charm and their deep setting. This last point supports the opinion that the monument is one of the early Islamic structures. The Jam’e Mosque of Na’in is also famous for its manbar and a wooden door, both of which are beautifully carved and both rank among Iran’s historic relics of considerable artistic value. Upon the manbar there is an inscription in Naskh style, carved on a floral background and dated 1311 AD, which is the date of the donation, by Jamal od-Din Malik ot-Tojjar, of the manbar. Further, a panel inscription on the door of the mosque, bears the date 1469 AD, which is that of reparations in the monument. Armenian Museum (Vānk) The architectural style of this two story building is a combination of Eastern and Western forms. Building, itself, bears a truly Persian character and its interior, ornamented with numerous murals (depicting the life of Jesus Christ) and plasters molding, illustrates the influence of Italian Renaissance. This edifice is a dependency of Armenian Cathedral of Isfahan, which houses a variety of items worth viewing, including "The Order of Safavid Kings", granting Armenians religious freedom, and a manuscript dating from the 10th. century A.D. Abianeh Village This village which is one of the most famous mild climate villages of Isfahan is located at 28 km distance to the city of Natanz on the foothills of Karkas Mountain. The interesting issue about this village is its social structure, architecture and the natives' interest in preserving their ancient traditions and culture. Niasar Firetemple This temple which has a quadrupled dome is located in the city of Kashan and was discovered by French archeologist Roman Guirshman. Naghsh-e-Jahan Square Still sometimes known as Naghsh-e-Jahan Square, this huge, open square is one of the largest in the world (500m by 160m), and a majestic example of town planning Built in 1612, many of the most interesting sights in Isfahan are clustered around the square, and it's a place you just keep coming back to again and again. The original goal posts from Shah Abbas polo ground are still in place at the far ends of the square. One charming but certainly touristy thing to do is to take a ride on a horse and buggy around the square. Borojerdis House The said premises is located in Kashan and was constructed during the years 1292-1310 AH. by 'Haj Seyed Jaffar Natanzi' a merchant who conducted business in Borujerd and Kashan as well. He constructed this house in order to evade religious levies. The entrance to the premises is from an octagonal vestibule and an area utilized by pageboys adorned with a number of multilateral crescents and skylights in the ceiling. Then a long corridor leads to the northern facade of the building. Near the entrance is a five-door chamber with intricate plasterwork. This opens out on a large and roof less porch, capturing the warmth of the sun, and transferring the same to the small symmetrical chambers on either side of this porch. In the northeastern portion of the structure are the kitchen quarters, arranged with shelves, and a special area to provide space for china and other utilities. Whereas in the western and eastern sections are chambers and covered porches. Opposite which is a courtyard and a stairway connecting the main premises to the basement. The basement covers a vast area and is tastefully arranged with wide wall cupboards with carved and lattice worked wooden doors. On either side of the building is the main or entrance staircase leading to the southern part of the structure. Here there is a large porch with a high ceiling giving way to an entertainment hall. Behind which, on a lower level is an octagonal area with a pool or the 'hauz khaneh'. The same has a domed shaped roof and beautiful skylights. Here the ceiling is vaulted and worked with tiles in harmonious colors. On the walls, portraits of the Qajar sovereigns can be noted, with their guards in formal European apparel. This building is also equipped with cellars that are cool and pleasant for use in the heat of summer. Materials used in the construction of this structure are, stone, brick, sun baked bricks and a composition of clay, straw and mortar. Isfahan Bazaar This bazaar is a relic of the Safavid era and prolongs from the Qasariyeh facade to the Jame' Mosque. This bazaar is also known as the 'Bazaar-e-Nezamiyeh' or 'Nezam-ol-Molk. Khajoo Bridge The above mentioned took its foundation in the late Teimooride period, and was constructed according to what it is currently in 1060 AH, under the orders of Shah Abbas II. Its cubicles, adornments and tile work are interesting aspects of this constructions. There is a structure in the center of the bridge, known as the Beglarbegi construction. The same was used as a temporary residence for the royal family. The name of this bridge is a distorted version of the word 'Khajeh' which was a title for great personalities in the Safavid era. It was constructed on the Zayandeh Rood River. Built by Shah Abbas I from about 1650. It doubles as a dam, and has always been as much a meeting place as a functioning bearer of traffic.It has two levels of terraces overlooking the river, the lower contain locks regulating the flow of the river. Fin Palace and Garden of Kashan This garden is located to the south of the city of Kashan and near the village of Fin. The same was constructed on the former structures of the Al-e-Booyeh era. Its general layout and aqua system has been rendered special attention. This vicinity gained fame due to the murder of Amir Kabir, the reputed nationalist and Prime Minister (Grand Chancellor) of Nasereddin Shah Qajar. Amir Kabir was assassinated in a small bath here in the year 1268 AH. by the order of the Shah. This garden is a relic from the Safavid period, and has remained such for centuries due to the capacity of water it gains from the Soleimaniyeh spring. Today, this water flows into the 'Lasegah' pool after meandering through this beautiful garden, and providing water for the surrounding areas. The structures of this garden are the entrance and its facade, tower and ramparts, the Safavid and Fathali Shah sections, chambers for the elite, the museum on the western side of the premises, the large and small bath and the library in the eastern sector of this garden. The covered construction housing the Shah Abbasi section is in two floors, this being in the center of the garden and opposite the grand facade. The construction of the same was completed in the year 1226 AH. Here, there are beautiful paintings and an inscription worked with plaster in the 'nastaliq' script. In the vicinity of this garden, several monarchs such as Shah Safi, Shah Soleiman, Shah Tahmasb, Shah Abbas, Karim Khan Zand and Fath Ali Shah have all contributed in the repair or making addition to the structures on the premises. However, these structures witnessed plunder in the early period of the constitutional revolution. Hasht Behesht Palace This historical edifice was constructed during the reign of Shah Soleiman Safavid. Today, only a minor portion of the grounds remains. However, tile work with interesting designs, which are the remnants of this palace can be noted. Chehel Sotun Palace The Chehel Sotune Palace and its garden cover an area of approximately 67,000 sq. m. This palace was constructed during the reign of Shah Abbas I. Shah Abbas II was also responsible for additions to this palace, such as the hall of mirrors, the hall of 18 pillars and two large chambers facing the north and south. The spectacular hall of mirrors with its decorative mirror work, tile work and paintings, along with its majestic porches and pool which faces this hall, all add to its splendor. Interesting aspects of the Chehel Sotune Palace are: The stone lions at the four corners of the central pool, the hall and marble and vaulted cornices around it. The gilded adornments, paintings and the portrait of the sovereign in the royal hall. Along with that of the chambers surrounding the hall of mirrors. The portrait of Shah Abbas I with the special crown and the miniatures of the treasury room. Several facades such as the 'Qotbiyeh Mosque', 'Zaviyeh in Kushk', and the imprints of the 'Dar-e-Joubareh' and 'Aqasi Mosque' are affixed in the western and southern walls of the garden. The hall and porches of this palace were constructed during the fifth year of the reign of Shah Abbas II. The reflection of the twenty pillars of the hall in the pool opposite the palace brings about a conception of forty pillars. Hence the name Chehel Sotune. Sialk Hill of Kashan This ancient hill is located 3 km to the south of Kashan. Studying the clay dishes discovered in this area revealed that its civilization dates back to 4500 BC. Other objects discovered in the area include clay tablets belonging to Elamite era. Near the central hill of Sialk, two graveyards, conventionally called A and B, have been discovered. The objects found from the excavations include iron weapons, swords, lances and piped dishes. The objects found in graveyard A date back to 2000 years BC and those in graveyard B date back to early first millennium or late second millennium BC. Congregational Mosque of Isfahan This is an Iranian style mosque of Isfahan including works of art which show the changes of Islamic architecture in the Iranian history. The decoration of this mosque includes title work and plaster work.This is an aggregate of structures and works of art of the post-Islamic period in Iran. Interesting aspects of this mosque are: Small platforms to the right of the entrance corridor, along with circular pillars and beautiful plaster work. These are the remnants of the Deylamite period dating to the fourth century AH. The Khajeh Nezam-ol-Molk Dome, (minister during the reign of Malek Shah Saljuqi). The same was constructed in the years 465-485 AH. The forty pillars in the western sector of this dome were added to the mosque during the reign of Shah AbbasI.The forty pillars on the left of the entrance corridor, are relics from the Al-e-Mozaffar dynasty. The southern porch of this mosque was constructed in the 6th century AH, but its exterior and interior works of art are of the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th centuries AH. The two minarets of this porch were additions made during the rule of Hassan Bek Turkoman and 'Abu Nasr Hassan Abadar was responsible for repairs in this mosque.The tile work adornments surrounding the courtyard are remnants of the Hassan Bek Turkoman period. The eastern porch with its elegant plasterwork is of the Saljuqi period.The Omar platform to the east of this porch is a relic of the Qobt-ud-Din Mahmood of the Al-e-Mozaffar dynasty. The western porch of the mosque along with its tile work is a remnant of the 6th century AH. This was repaired and re-decorated during the reign of Shah Soltan Hossain Safavid. The northern porch of the mosque, reputedly known as the Dervish platform is of the 6th century and its inscriptions of gypsum are relics of the Shah Soleiman Safavid period. Besides which its pillars are worth observing. Another aspect of this mosque is its dome, constructed in the year 481 AH.The central pool of the mosque was constructed during the reign of Shah Mohammad Khodabandeh Safavid Vank Cathedral The Vank Church is one of the most beautiful and largest churches in the Jolfa vicinity of Esfahan. Its gilded ceiling, interior section of the dome and fine historical paintings are matchless. Internally, the walls are adorned with oil paintings that are also gilded similar to that of Iranian art. Religious paintings revealing an Italian touch can be observed here. The founder of this structure was Shah Soltan Hossain Safavid. Alighapou Palace This palace was also called 'Daulat Khaneh-e-Mobarakeh Nagsh-e-Jahan' and the 'Daulat Khaneh Palace'. Its unique archaic architecture is related to the Safavid era. This edifice was constructed under the orders of Shah Abbas I. The monarch would receive special envoys in this palace and hold his audience here. Valuable miniature paintings, the works of the reputed artist of the times Reza Abbassi, and other traditional works of art can be noted here. Plasterwork of the 'sound room' was modeled such that the acoustic affect produced natural and pleasant sounds. The sovereign and his guests would be spectators to polo, illuminations, fire-works and the dramatics that took place in the Nagsh-e-Jahan Square from the halls of this elegant palace. Yazd old Structure (Historical Walls) In ancient Iran there were many types of public structures, from among which one may mention the achievement represented by city walls. The twelfth to fourteenth century walls of Yazd, which are still standing, are perhaps the most interesting, imposing and skillfully planned. In Yazd, sections of the old walls and moat remain, providing an interesting example of a medieval wall, fortified by moat, towers and barbicans, now buried deep within a town which has long since expanded beyond its old limits. These walls were begun, it is said, in 1119 and rebuilt and extended during the 14th century. In places, they were 15 meters high; being nicely decorated with ornamental devices such as those employed on unglazed pottery. Amir Chakhmagh Mosque Amir Chakhmaq Shami and his wife, Seti Fatimeh built this square, in the 9th century AH. Hadji Qanbar Bazaar on the east side of the square was one of the buildings constructed by Nezameddin Hadj Qanbar Jahanshahi. The famous Mir Chakhmaq Mosque and theater for passion plays are located on the north of the square. Yazd Air-ducts One of the distinctive features of the cities of Yazd province which discriminate it from other cities, is the existence of various wind trappers. Most of them belong to old residential houses. On the other hand majority of urban reservoirs and mosques also have wind trapper. In other words the same are considered as respiratory tracts of the city. They are towers that, in respect to the special form of building, direct the natural air current to different sections of the building. Regardless of its utility, these constructions used to represent the owner's distinction and social standing. It could be judged by the height and adornments of these wind trappers. Shooshtar waterfalls and historic water mills –Shooshtar- Khuzestan This site is considered to be an attractive historic site in Iran and also in the world. These water falls were constructed in 1233 A.H. in order to protect the Mizan Dam. “Gargar” Dam also constructed on the course of this river and some holes were created on the top of this dam in order to conduct the water to flow through the holes, thus creating the present waterfalls. The water mills of this complex are related to Sassanid era. Oramanat Takht Village-Kurdistan "Ouraman" that its pronunciation is "Houraman" in Kurdish language, is a village located 65 km. from the eastern south of "Marivan" city. It is located in a valley on steep slope overlooking the northern front of Takht Mountains. The houses are arranged such that the roof of one house is the courtyard of the other. This beautiful village has a moderate and mountainous climate and unique nature. Stair-formed architecture of village is the most interesting attraction for tourism. Falak-ol- Aflak Fortress- Lorestan Located in an ancient hill in the center of Khorram Abad city ,it is an old fortress related to Sassanid era. But some resources indicate that its construction refers to shoja-ol-di9n Khorshid –king of " Atabakan –e-Lor" era, in 4th century A.H. This fortress is called "Shapur Khast" in historic written. From the view point of military and geography, this fortress had a special location. Arak Bazaar-Markazi Part of this bazaar dates back to 1228 AH. The structure is outstanding from the architectural point of view. All its main sections are constructed in the form of straight rows, branching off at right angles to these rows. The latter being generally the carpet sellers sector. This bazaar was constructed of brick and sun-dried bricks, besides which the historical Sepahdari school of Arak is located her. Veresk Bridge-Mzandaran This bridge was constructed during the reign of Reza Shah, on the Veresk River in the vicinity of Savad Kooh. During world war II, it was reputedly known as the Pol-e-Piroozi, or the bridge of victory. The bridge is at an elevation of 110 m. and its arch measures 66 m. in length. The same is one of the master pieces of engineering to do with the railway track in northern Iran. Mirza Hassan Khan Bridge-Mzandaran This large bridge was constructed in the year 1146 AH., in the beginning of the reign of Karim Khan Zand. The bridge spans over the Babol River. The same has seven main aches and two smaller ones to the height of 11 m. The length of this bridge is 140 m. and is to the width of 6 m. The said is considered as one of the important and ancient bridges of the province. Qazvin Bazaar Aggregate-Qazvin The above mentioned is a remnant of the Safavid period and its architectural effects are extremely interesting. Though the nucleus of this bazaar is relevant to the pre-Safavid times, during the reign of the said dynasty, the bazaar had witnessed expansion. Each row or alley of the bazaar was allocated to a certain guild, besides which each segment comprised of a mosque, bath and arcade. The Qeisarieh of Qazvin has four entrances, the northern entrance leads to the Sarbaz arcade, whereas the southern, eastern and western entrances, lead to the covered arcades, the Vazir Inn and the intersection of the bazaar respectively. The Sa'd-ol-Saltaneh Bazarcheh is an archaic relic of the Qazvin bazaar. This has a beautiful vestibule. The important sectors of the bazaar are as follows: Sarbaz Arcade: This double storeyed construction is located to the north of Qeisarieh. The arcade has an arched entrance. Its false arched ceilings are adorned in reintal fashion, and its yellow and pink tiles display hunting scenes and floral design. Its wooden sash doors are another interesting feature. Covered Arcade: This as the name goes is a covered arcade located to the south of Qeisarieh. It is a double storeyed structure with chambers alongside. Arcade of Haj Sayed Kazem : This arcade is within the bazaar and opposite the leather merchant alley. Currently this alley is for leather products. Razavi Arcade: The same was constructed by Haj Seyed Abol Qasem Razavi Esfahani. Currently his descendants are in charge of the same and this alley deals in timber. Dervish Mehdi Arcade: The same is located at the large intersection and to the southern entrance of the mint. Currently the same is an area for dispatching goods. Haj Mohammad Taqi Arcade: The same was constructed by Haj Mohammad Taqi. In the past it was the iron mongers segment of the bazaar, Today it is a vicinity for dispatching merchandise. Alamoot–Gazerkhan Village- Qazvin It is located in the northeast of Gazerkhan village , which according to Hamdollah Mostowfi’s records was firstly founded in 840 A.D by Daee Ilalhagh Hasan Ebne Zeidal Bagheri then Hasan Sabbah captured it in 1090 A. D . The eastern rampart of the upper castle is constructed of stone and gypsum, and is about 10m. in length and 5m. in height. the castle is known as Alamoot or Hasan 's castle .